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Cross-sectional bright-field TEM images of sample A taken under two-beam diffraction conditions at the same area. (a) and (b) . and m denote pure edge and mixed dislocations, respectively. The dashed line delineates the interface.
Plan-view SEM images of layers with thicknesses of (a) 200 (sample A), (b) 110 (sample B), and (c) 60 nm (sample C), respectively. (d) The V-defect size as a function of thickness in three samples (A, B, and C). denotes the size, the distance between a pair of parallel sides of the V-defects. denotes the intercept on the vertical axis at .
Schematic diagrams of the origin and evolution of V-defects associated with TDs in layers. (a) At the very early stage of layer growth; (b) separated sidewalls began to incorporate and formed an apex of V-defect; and (c) the successive growth after incorporation. and s (m) denote pure edge, pure screw (mixed) dislocations, respectively.
Cross-sectional bright-field TEM images of sample D taken under two-beam diffraction conditions at the same area. (a) and (b) . (c) Cross-sectional HAADF STEM image of sample D taken in zone axis. The declining arrows indicate small V-defects independent of TDs. The horizontal arrows highlight the short dark contrast following small V-defects. The dashed line delineates the interface.
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