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The ROS response from cells exposed to different lasers. (I) CW 1550 nm laser; (II) fs 1554 nm laser; (III) CW 980 nm laser; (IV) no laser illumination. Panels A to D are typical results recorded, respectively, at 1, 5, 10, and 15 min after laser exposure. Bar: . Color palette: the relative DHE fluorescence. Cross: laser focus.
The temporal ROS response from cells after different laser exposures. The plots show the normalized signals vs time.
The temporal ROS response from cells exposed to different lasers in the presence of sodium azide. (a) The normalized intensity . (b) The ratio of relative change in the FI calculated by .
DNA fragmentations induced by lasers focused at site X as indicated in HepG2 cells. Cells have been exposed to: (a) CW laser at 1550 nm; (b) fs laser at 1554 nm; (c) CW laser at 980 nm; (d) medium alone; and (e) staurosporine . Dotted line: cell shape. Bar: .
Changes in the mitochondrial potential of HepG2 cells after exposure to different lasers. The changes were determined by the JC-1 R/G fluorescence ratio. (I) CW laser at 1550 nm; (II) CW laser at 980 nm; (III) fs laser at 1554 nm; (IV) cells without any laser exposure; and (V) cells treated with valinomycin for 30 min without laser illumination.
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