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Unit cell of the bixbyite cell in side (a) and top (b) view. Light and dark green small balls indicate In atoms in distorted and regular octahedral coordination, respectively. Oxygen atoms are colored in three different shades depending on their position relative to an upper In layer; dark brown (lowest), red (middle), and light brown (top). Dashed and curved full boxes indicate dipole-free repeat units. (c) Top view of an surface with O atoms dimerized as in Ref. 4. At the top-right small and large boxes are surface and bulk unit cells, respectively. At bottom the irreducible representation ( symmetry elements) is indicated.
RHEED patterns taken along the  direction of (a) the YSZ substrate and (b) a 3.8 nm thick epitaxial ITO(001) film. LEED patterns of (c) the YSZ(001)- substrate, taken at a temperature of , (d) ITO(001) with 15.6 at. % .
STM images and top-view models of ITO(001) films with different Sn content. (a), (b) 15.6 at% Sn, (a) , , ; (b) , , ; (c) 3.6 at. % Sn, , , , . The white dots in the models in (d), (e) represent O dimers; in (e) 1/3 of the dimers have been removed to mimick the zig-zag structure observed in (c).
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