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(a) Grazing-incident XRD pattern using radiation. (011) lattice-plane spacing, (S1), 0.3190 (S2), and 0.3189 nm (S3), are 0.19%, 0.25%, and 0.28% smaller than that of bulk material (0.3198 nm). (b) Field-emission SEM surface morphology; scale bars: 500 nm. Phase segregation of nanowires is obvious on S3 surface.
High resolution XPS spectra: (a) and core levels; (b) and VBs. Pass energy of analyzer: 25 eV; charge reference: line at 284.6 eV. Fitted peak at lower BE corresponds to O in lattice, and that at higher BE attributes to either absorbed O species or the lattice O with trapped holes. The VB maximum of are determined to be at (S1), −316.4 (S2), and 25.8 meV (S3).
(a) Electronic structure of in the and phases. Temperature dependence of (b) IR absorptions and (c) absorption coefficient around absorption edges at . Reduced band gaps are 0.46, 0.40, and 0.43 eV for S1–S3, respectively.
Temperature dependence of PL spectra acquired with attenuated He–Cd laser power. Fitted peaks locate at wavelength, , 492.9, and 563.1 nm (S1); 426.1, 489.9, and 560.8 nm (S2); and 425.3, 490.4, and 561.4 nm (S3). Corresponding peak energy: (, 2, or 3).
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