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(a) Optical microscope image and magnified SEM image of line test sample with Mo contacts and (b) a diagram of the test setup used in this experiment.
(a) Monitored current change at oscilloscope as a function of time during the dc single pulse stress of 6.5 V until the breakdown occurred. (b) SEM image of the failed- line structure after dc stress. (c) Evolution of compositional variation by the dc single-pulse stress with respect to the stress time of 0.17, 0.53, 1.02, and 1.27 ms in the molten . (d) The number of migrating atoms across the center of the line normalized by the initial number concentration of each element.
(a) Resistance change in the line during the pulse stress for 20 h. (b) Atomic concentration and (c) Normalized -factor analysis showing the atomic diffusion from the anode to the cathode in crystalline after the pulse stress.
Schematic view of electromigration in a conventional PRAM cell. Te is accumulated between the crystalline and the active region, and Sb is accumulated above the bottom contact electrode.
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