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One-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional hopping model. Here, the polymer is subdivided into wells with the hopping distance between them. denotes the effective barrier height for a jump from well to well , and denotes the corresponding hopping rate. In the three-dimensional model all possible directions for a jump have to be taken into account.
(a) Simulated charge distribution for different charge carrier densities without external applied field. The inset shows a magnification of the depletion zone for the lowest charge carrier density . (b) Surface potential distribution resulting from the charge distribution. (c) Measured surface potential for a PEO sample doped with different concentrations of .
(a) Simulated and (b) measured surface potential distribution for different sample lengths without external applied field.
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