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HRTEM images of films on a BOE treated GaAs (100) surface are shown along the GaAs  direction. The image shows changes in the crystal structure from an amorphous to a crystalline phase during postannealing processes at . The arrows represent the lattice mismatch for interfacial atoms between the film and the GaAs substrate.
(a) Hf, Ga–As, and O peaks of measured MEIS spectra and (b) compositional depth profiles for 4-nm-thick films as a function of postannealing temperature. The Ga and As peaks were observed as one peak, in which the Ga and As peaks are overlapped, due to the similarity of each atomic mass.
(a) NEXAFS spectra of the O edge features for HfO2/GaAs films. The O -edge features of the NEXAFS spectra in the films were changed after the postannealing treatments. (b) Hf core-level spectra for HfO2/GaAs films were measured by XPS as a function of postannealing temperature.
REELS spectra for films as function of postannealing temperature, using an incident electron energy of 1.0 keV. The values were defined as the threshold energy of band-to-band excitation. The arrows represent the surface plasmon peak near 9 eV and the bulk plasmon peak near 16 eV, respectively.
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