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(a) Schematics of the experiments, (b) AFM tip functionalization with antiricin antibody, and (c) ricin molecule immobilization on the Au (111).
Topographic image (a) before and (c) after the blocking of antibodies on AFM tip and the corresponding recognition image (b) before and (d) and after the blocking.
AFM topography (a), (c), and (e) and recognition (b), (d), and (f) of ricin molecules immobilized on Au (111) surface. Single molecule resolution was resolved with Au (111) terraces underneath clearly seen in large area topography image (a) but not seen in the corresponding recognition image (b). Small area images (c) and (d) show that the ricin protein on the surface fold up to form different shapes, some of which even clearly show two chains (e) and (f).
(a) Typical AFM retraction curves at instantaneous loading rate of 15.37, 38.02, and 51.64 nN/s. (b) Most probable unbinding force histogram and their Gaussian fitting curves for five different force loading rates. (c) Most probable unbinding force at different instantaneous loading rate. The linearity fits the one-barrier dissociation model well. (d) The instantaneous loading rate histogram and their Gaussian fitting curves.
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