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Cross-sectional SEM images of damascene trenches with linewidths of (a) 70 nm and (b) 500 nm. (c) A grain map of the 70 nm Cu wires obtained by electron backscatter diffraction. Each color represents a different crystal orientation. (d) A histogram of the grain size distribution derived from the image in (c).
(a) SEM image of the Cu wires being contacted by the four probes. (b) An enlargement of the image in (a). In the four-terminal measurements, the current flows between tips 1 and 4, and the voltage drop is measured between tips 2 and 3. [(c) and (d)] Images of the voltage probes 2 and 3 approaching each other. The probe spacings are (c) 750 nm and (d) 70 nm.
Measured resistances of the 70 nm wide Cu wire (a) 500 nm (filled circles) and (b) (open circles) wide wires as a function of probe spacing. The solid lines are the linear least-squares fits. (c) An enlargement of the region contained by the dotted square in (a) for a probe spacing of 700 nm. The solid lines indicate the linear least-squares fits for the data located in intervals of 200 nm, all having nearly the same slope. The jump corresponds to the grain boundary scattering. (d) Plot of the resistivity as a function of the Cu line width. The solid line is the least-squares fit to Eq. (3). The contributions of different scattering mechanisms are also shown.
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