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(a) Surface morphology studied by AFM, with cosine filtered region (b) and slope distribution (d). Low magnification TEM image (c). XRD scan (e) and reciprocal space map (f) of a sample. Vertical lines in (e) and crosses in (f) mark reflection positions in bulk materials. The fits and labels S and R in (e) correspond to strained and relaxed BFO, respectively. (g) HRTEM image. (h) Deformation map along the  direction, the reference being taken in the STO substrate. [Scale bars correspond in (a)–(c) to 100 nm and in (g) and (h) to 5 nm.]
Composite sample with . SEM images (secondary electrons, sample tilted 45° along  direction) before (a) and after HCl etching (b). Insets: backscattered electron images and sketches of the respective morphologies. Scale bars: 500 nm. (d) EDX spectra before (top curve) and after (bottom curve) etching. (d) XRD scans before (black curve) and after (red curve) etching. Labels S and R correspond to strained and relaxed BFO, respectively.
MFM [(a) and (c)] and PFM (b) measurements of a sample (horizontal bars are 300 nm). Black and white regions in (b) show “up” and “down” ferroelectric domains in the as-grown BFO matrix, with zero response for CFO pillars. Black and white regions in (a) and (c) show CFO pillars before and after electrically poling the region with −12 V, respectively, with zero response for the BFO matrix. (d) Difference image of (a) and (c): white areas (circled in red) indicate CFO pillars magnetically switched following a reversal of the polarization in BFO.
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