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Multilevel reset switching behaviors in unipolar RS. (a) Experimental sweeps for a capacitor. Successive voltage sweeps of up to 0.43 V yielded multilevel RS with various intermediate states. (b) Simulation results based on the RCB network model. Note that the simulations can explain the existence of several metastable states during the reset process.
Microscopic conductance changes of the surface during the multilevel reset switching process obtained through AFM studies. [(a)–(d)] Successive conductance mapping images obtained by scanning the same area with a bias of 2.5 V. (b) Line current profiles along the “A.” In repeat scans, both the conducting area and the amount of the current flow per unit area decrease.
Simulation results for multilevel reset switching using the RCB network model. (a) Snapshots of the conducting paths at the metastable stages denoted by P1, P2, P3, and P4 in Fig. 1. The thick and thin network lines indicate ON (i.e., conducting) and OFF (i.e., insulating) circuit breaker states, respectively. The colored areas in the top electrode show the regions in which it contacts the conducting paths inside the sample. (b) Line current profiles along the top surfaces for various resistance states (P1–P4).
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