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Experimentally measured change of the locking range for a fixed injection current and absorber bias with varying modulation amplitude (locking tongue). The dots are marking the borders of the locking range. The inset shows the asymmetry of the locking range (black and red line) with respect to the passive mode locking frequency (green line) for the maximum modulation amplitude of 3.2 Vpp.
Dependence of measured locking range on the modulation amplitude. For a fixed gain current of 60 mA the absorber bias is varied in four steps while the locking range is measured in dependence of the modulation amplitude. The inset shows the behavior of the maximum locking range in comparison to the width of the optical pulses. The values for the locking range in the inset are for the highest modulation amplitude.
Locking tongue calculated numerically. Thick lines indicate the stability boundaries of the locking regime (locking range). —saddle-node bifurcation lines. —Andronov–Hopf bifurcation line. Thin lines correspond to saddle-node bifurcations of unstable solutions. Vertical dotted line is the passive mode-locked laser frequency. The inset shows branches of locked solutions. Stable (unstable) solutions are shown by solid (dotted) lines. (No. 1 is for and No. 2 for ). Empty dots indicate Hopf (h) and saddle-node (sn) bifurcations responsible for the destabilization of the locked solutions.
Plots illustrating the dependence of the locking frequency range on the spectral filtering width (a) and ratio of the saturation intensities in gain and absorber sections (b). Locking domain is shown by gray color.
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