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Schematic representation of PCCL fabrication. (1) Holographic lithography for producing the background PC structure, followed by Cr etch and photoresist removal. (2) Conventional photolithography for fabricating the mechanical support structure. (3) FIB-assisted Pt deposition for defining a defect structure. (4) Dry etching of the underlying layer, InP cap layer, and InGaAsP MQW section, followed by removal of etch masks and immersion in dilute HCl for etching the InP cap and sacrificial layers for air-bridge formation.
SEM images of a fabricated PCCL: (a) entire area, including the support structures at four corners and (b) a magnified image of a single defect cavity at the center. (c) Photonic band structure for the transverse-electric-like modes of the square-lattice air-bridge PC. The gray region, which represents the photonic band gap, is designed to overlap with the emission band of the InGaAsP MQWs. Inset shows the irreducible Brillouin zone of the square lattice and its high-symmetry points.
(a) Relationship between light input and light output. Inset shows the emission spectrum (of the quadrupole mode) recorded when the power is just below the laser threshold. (b) Laser spectra measured for several nominally identical PCCLs. FDTD-simulated field profiles for the two lasing modes are also shown.
(a) Laser spectra measured at selected polarization angles. Polarization angle dependence of laser intensity: (b) dipole mode and (c) quadrupole mode.
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