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Representative SEM images of typical silicon nanopyramids synthesized in plasmas (a), Ni catalyst film fragmented in rf plasmas (b), and carbon nanocones synthesized in plasmas (c); schematic of the experimental setup (d), and schematic of the EFMD (e).
Dependence of the total energy flux to the substrate dummy on the total gas pressure, for the four different gas mixtures. Addition of even small amounts of hydrogen strongly increases the energy flux.
Dependence of the total energy flux to the substrate dummy on the substrate bias, for the five different gas mixtures.
Two main effects of hydrogen in low-temperature plasma-based nanoscale synthesis. (a) Hydrogen heating results in the fragmentation of a continuous metal catalyst film (strong heating via hydrogen recombination); (b) Hydrogen passivation of the carbon surface result in the formation of high-aspect-ratio single-crystalline carbon nanocones (simultaneous plasma heating and surface passivation).
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