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[(a) and (b)] Magnetization of a 100 nm thick Ni film on BTO plotted vs the electric field applied across the BTO substrate at different applied magnetic fields . is normalized to the value obtained at . (c) Comparison of the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient obtained from dc and ac SQUID measurements. For clarity, only one direction of the electric field sweep is displayed.
[(a) and (b)] In-plane magnetic hysteresis loops for different electric fields applied across the BTO substrate. (c) The magnetization orientation can be switched either via electric or via magnetic fields. (d) Evolution of the magnetization during the electric field sweep at . The second electric field sweep is indicated by open symbols.
(a) loops measured at . The two different electro-remanent magnetic states at are indicated by the full circles. (b) By appropriately ramping the electric field, can be switched back and forth between the two electro-remanent states, indicated by the full circles. The measurement was performed at .
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