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Free electron mobility , density (a), film resistivity (b), coherence length , and Al concentration of AZO films (c) vs substrate temperature at a fixed oxygen partial pressure of . Variation in with is shown as inset in panel (b), being the dashed line only guide-to-the-eye.
-, -, and -edge XANES spectra of AZO films grown at , (16 at. %), and (3 at. %) using Zn–Al target with , and at using target with . The spectra are shifted vertically for clarity. The reference spectra of ZnO, (from Refs. 10 and 12) and (from Ref. 10) are shown for comparison, together with the spectra of a film with 19 at. % Al adapted from Ref. 11.
XRD patterns of ZnO:Al films deposited using Zn–Al target with at (1) and (2). The XRD pattern of the sample after isothermal annealing for 2 h at (3) is also shown.
Optimum substrate temperature for different magnetron powers and oxygen partial pressures . In all cases, the was of .
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