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Simplified energy band diagram of a series-connected tandem bulk heterojunction solar cell under open-circuit conditions in two situations: (a) all electrodes provide an appropriate Ohmic contact and (b) a non-Ohmic hole contact of the top cell, due to a reduced work function of the anode, results in a reduction in open-circuit voltage of the tandem device. The indicated energy levels correspond to the HOMO position of the donor and the LUMO position of the acceptor. The subscripts F, B, and T stand for front, back, and tandem, respectively.
Titration curve of Clevios PH500 with a 1:8 dilution of DMAE in water. On the horizontal axis, the relative amount of DMAE solution added to the PEDOT:PSS dispersion is displayed. The line serves to guide the eye. The inset shows the chemical structures of PEDOT and PSS.
Squares: -induced work function decrease of 45 nm thick M-PH500 layers on top of ITO. Circles: open-circuit voltage of PF10TBT:PCBM single junction cells processed on the same ITO/M-PH500 substrates.
Current-voltage characteristics of single and double junction solar cells based on P3HT and PF10TBT. The P3HT-based tandem device contained a ZnO/M-PH500 interlayer, whereas the two subcells of the PF10TBT:PCBM tandem were interconnected with ZnO/M-PH500/Nafion interlayers. The P3HT:PCBM layer thickness is approximately 120 nm, the thickness of the PF10TBT:PCBM layers is approximately 80 nm.
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