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Resistivity, carrier mobility, and carrier concentration as a function of the post-annealing temperature for the ZnO and ZnO:Al films.
Plot of vs for the ZnO and ZnO:Al films at various annealing temperatures. The linear fit for the optical band gap energy is shown as a dotted line.
X-ray photoemission spectra corresponding to , , and for the ZnO and ZnO:Al films at various annealing temperatures. Each dashed line indicates the binding energy (with respect to the Fermi energy) from the standard ZnO sample.20–22
Schematic band diagrams of the ZnO and ZnO:Al films. The solid arrow indicates the optical bandgap (obtained from Fig. 2). The dashed arrow indicates the Fermi-level shift obtained from the XPS spectra (Fig. 3 and Table SI). The solid arrow in the conduction band is from the Burstein‑Moss effect of Eq. (3).
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