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(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of nonlinear mesoscopic three-terminal junction. The voltage drop on the right branch is used as output signal, while the barrier gate voltage is changed. The input voltages and as well as the right gate voltage set the working condition of the nanojunction. (b) Transfer characteristic of by sweeping . The time between the up and down sweep was set to 20 s. Noise induced transitions from the low L with output to the high H with state occur within −0.250 and −0.245 V. To measure SR the Y-branch switch is biased at and additional to the dc component, a weak time periodic signal with amplitude is applied.
Normalized mean residence time distribution for the L state for signal frequencies , 0.1, 0.6, 1, 1.8, and 2.4 Hz. For the nonmodulated system with the residence time distribution is exponentially decreasing. With Eq. (1) the inverse of the Kramer’s rate can be calculated. Below the optimum synchronization frequency of the distribution is mainly noise controlled. By contrast, at higher frequencies and 2.4 Hz the distributions show higher order peaks at , which peaks decrease with higher orders of n.
Time trace signals of the output voltage for different external signal frequencies: (upper graph), (middle graph), (lower graph). At the noise dynamics follow directly the frequency of the external input forcing with a maximum synchronization. For this frequency the time matching condition of SR is fulfilled.
Distribution of the area (first peak area) after Eq. (2) as a function of the frequency of the periodic forcing. A maximum is achieved at the SR frequency of .
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