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Nonpolar RS behavior, the coexistence of [(a) and (d)] unipolar and [(b) and (c)] bipolar RS characteristics, is observed in the MgO memory device. The SET-RESET processes can be achieved by (a) positive-positive, (b) positive-negative, (c) negative-positive, and (d) negative-negative voltage polarities.
The first three dc voltage sweeps applied to the as-fabricated MgO memory devices with the MgO films deposited in (a) the Ar atmosphere, showing the nonforming nature; and in (b) the 20% atmosphere, showing the requirement of the forming process.
The XPS spectra of the MgO film of (a) , indicating the coexistence of in MgO ( at 51.5 eV) in majority and metallic Mg ( at 49.8 eV) in minority; and of (b) , indicating the existence of lattice oxygen ions ( at 529.8 eV). The solid lines represent the fitted spectra.
(a) The temperature dependence of the LRS resistance measured with 100 mV. The solid line represents the linear fit. (b) The AES compositional depth profile of the MgO memory device in the LRS after 100 switching cycles.
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