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Positive surface and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO multilayers
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Small-angle XRD pattern for a Ni/NiO multilayer (data points). The fitted pattern using the GENX code is also shown (continuous line). The fitting parameters are tabulated in the figure.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) XTEM image of the Ni/NiO multilayer, grown on top of the native oxide of a Si(001) wafer. An excellent Ni/NiO multilayer sequence is illustrated. (b) HRTEM cross section image of a typical Ni nanograin, with a size of about . (c) Fourier transform of an area including the Ni/NiO layers and the Si substrate, imaged in HRTEM conditions. The Ni grains predominately exhibit {111}-type lattice fringes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Polar MOKE loops ( is applied along the film normal) for three Ni/NiO multilayers with , 4.0 nm (continuous line), and 3.1 nm (dashed line). The loops are typical hard-axis ones with a linear increase in the magnetization up to . decreases with decreasing Ni thickness. In the inset the over analysis reveals a positive surface anisotropy.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

SQUID loops for a high multilayer recorded at (a) and (b) . The external field was applied along the film normal (: closed squares) and film-plane (: open circles). The loops recorded with the field along the film normal, unlike the ones of Fig. 3, have the characteristic shape for stripe magnetic domain formation [inset of (b)].


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Positive surface and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO multilayers