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Diagram of the experimental setup for PA measurement of viscosity. The PA coupling medium is water.
Time-domain PA signals (a) and corresponding normalized frequency spectrum (c) for glycerin–water solution with different viscosity coefficients. Figure (b) shows a change in normalized PA conversion efficiency depending on the viscosity.
The time-domain (a) and frequency spectrum (b) of PA signals that generated in ink solution with different absorption coefficients. The label in the figure shows the concentration of ink.
The viscosity coefficient determined from the measured PA frequency (solid squares) against the actual viscosity coefficient (solid circles). The solid line represents the reference line and the error bars indicate the standard error on the mean.
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