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Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers
12.M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3669 (2005).
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We fabricatedorganic light-emitting diodes with one-dimensional Bragg gratings as light extraction elements for substrate and waveguide modes. A layer was introduced to obtain a high refractive index contrast to the subsequent anode layer. As anode we employed a highly conductive polymer. Laser interference lithography and physical plasma etching were used to pattern gratings into the layer with a lattice constant of 370 nm and various grating depths. Mainly attributed to the outcoupling of the substrate modes, the structured devices exhibit a luminous flux which is up to four times higher compared to the unstructured reference devices.
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