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(a) Illustration of the experimental apparatus. An external bias voltage consisting of the signal and noise entered a thin film with a load resistance connected in series with a thin film. A signal that passes through the thin film is detected as an output voltage . (b) The nonlinear electronic properties of the thin film by applying a bias voltage. The closed blue circles show the experimental results, and the red dotted line indicates the fitting curve using Eq. (1) where , , and . (c) Temperature dependence of resistance in the prepared thin film.
Selected time series of , , and for (a) , (b) , and (c) , respectively, where is the amplitude of indicated by the function generator. The were square-wave pulses at 100 Hz. The amplitude and pulse width of were 5.5 V and 0.5 ms, respectively. The was Gaussian white noise with bandwidth up to 500 kHz. The data sampling rate and the measurement time were 5 kHz and 10 s, respectively. (d) as a function of . The closed red circles show determined from the experimental data of the thin film. The blue lines show numerically simulated values from the summing network model where the number of parallel threshold units varies from to 20. (e) Configuration of the numerical SR simulation with the summing network model. An SR threshold unit (TU) consists of a comparator and an independent noise part.
as a function of signal-to-threshold value from the experimental and simulated results. The closed red circles and open red circles show the peak of from the experimental data in the thin film with and without noise, respectively. The blue lines show the simulation results with summing networks from to 100.
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