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Diameter dependence of the minority carrier diffusion length in individual ZnO nanowires
3.J. E. Allen, E. R. Hemesath, D. E. Perea, J. L. Lensch-Falk, Z. Y. Li, F. Yin, M. H. Gass, P. Wang, A. L. Bleloch, R. E. Palmer, and L. J. Lauhon, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 168 (2008).
6.C. M. Lieber and Z. L. Wang, MRS Bull. 32, 99 (2007).
See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3456390
for current-voltage characteristics of ZnO nanowire Ohmic devices and Schottky diodes, schematic setup of the near-field SPCM, verification of the low-level injection condition, the model of
as a function of nanowire diameter, and a discussion of obtained
13.M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 163116 (2009).
14.Y. Gu, J. P. Romankiewicz, J. K. David, J. L. Lensch, L. J. Lauhon, E. S. Kwak, and T. W. Odom, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2172 (2006).
15.The photocurrent map appears to be “noisier” under forward-biased condition because of a large dark current, which required a lower sensitivity setting of the current amplifier.
16.The localized band bending (or the space-charge region) associated with the Schottky contact can extend into the nanowire region under high reverse biases. However, the photocurrent spatial profile remains unchanged under various biases (not shown here), indicating that the hole transport is diffusion in nature.
18.This value is larger than the nominal NSOM aperture size (100–150 nm), probably due to the finite distance between the NSOM probe and nanowire surface (Ref. 17): the “wear and tear” of the NSOM probe during the scan might also be a factor.
20.Y. I. Alivov, B. Xiao, S. Akarca-Biyikli, Q. Fan, H. Morkoc, D. Johnstone, O. Lopatiuk-Tirpak, L. Chernyak, and W. Litton, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 085201 (2008).
22.D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998).
23.If, alternatively, the surface states arise due to the presence of surface adsorbates, a diameter-independent surface electronic structure would lead to a constant for different diameters, opposite to our observations. Therefore, the argument of a diameter-dependent surface electronic structure is still valid.
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