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Schematic diagram of the waveguide bend with IM metamaterial. The width, relative permittivity, and relative permeability of the waveguide are , , and , respectively. The bending angle is (supplementary angle ). The shading region of (blue color online) is filled with IM metamaterial with permittivity of and permeability of . The inset shows the incident , reflection , and transmission on the interfaces of and related parameters.
Electric field distributions of of the waveguide bends with bending angles of (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) , respectively. The width of the waveguide is and the frequency of incident wave is . The regions filled with IM metamaterials are denoted using green and solid lines. The bending efficiencies are , , , and , respectively.
Compact bending structure for ultra large bending angle of (small ). (a) Schematic diagram of the improved bending structure with reduced size. The shading regions of and are filled with IM metamaterial. The sides of and are perpendicular to the axes of the two waveguide segments, respectively. (b) Electric field distribution for the bending angle of . The bending efficiency is 99.1%.
Snapshots of electric field in a bow-tie-shaped waveguide bending system with six 120° sharp bends. The color scale is the same as Fig. 2. Width of the waveguide is and the incident frequency is . (a) Direct bending. (b) All the bending corners (triangular regions enclosed by green solid lines) are filled with IM metamaterial. The overall bending efficiency is 97%.
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