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Evolution of the total amount of charge emitted (dashed line) and the rescaled amount of effectively emitted charge (solid line) during each timestep.
The electrostatic potential barrier that electrons need to cross in order to reach the remote boundary of the PIC grid. The large and small dashed lines show results of only thermionic emission and 3PPE respectively, while the solid line represents the total effect.
Fluence dependence of the total amount of emitted electrons (left axis) and the amount of effectively emitted electrons (escaped; right axis).
Total amount of electrons emitted (Total) and amount of effectively emitted electrons , as well as the ratio of both, i.e., the relative yield. Results are shown for simulations including 3PPE and thermionic emission separately, and for a simulation including both electron emission processes.
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