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TEM cross section of (001) on . The dotted line highlights the twin boundary between two ferroelectric domains. The two domains form a long range stripe pattern that is crystallographically aligned to the orthorhombic substrate.
A schematic of the planar IDE used for measurements in relationship to the stripe domain pattern. The applied field is bidirectional in adjacent finger gaps (G1,G2,…). Enlarged section shows the alignment of (boxed blue arrows) to (red arrows); both polarizations cause corresponding long range in-plane built-in electric fields and , respectively.
measurement from an IDE with increasing field strength. The double hysteresis is caused by the static built-in field, . Points A and C mark the fully saturated loop at positive field and negative field, respectively. Point B is the location on the hysteresis loop where inhibits polarization switching.
measurements combined with annealing and cycling. Annealing a sample at after poling (a) resulted in realignment of , causing removal of the long range ordering of , detectable through a measured imprint of −12 kV/cm. A second sample was cycled (b), disassociating and causing the magnitude of to reduce with no imprint.
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