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Illustration of (a) linear photon absorption and (b) nonlinear saturable absorption in graphene with a point band gap structure. The energy band structure can be described with Dirac cones in the space formed with 2D momentum plane and energy axis. is density of electrons acquired the combination of Fermi-dirac distribution function and density of states. The gray areas represent the filled states.
(a) SEM photo of the sprayed graphene film. Due to its dimension, a crinkled morphology is found. Inset shows the black-colored graphene suspension for the spray. (b) Transmittance characteristics of the graphene layer deposited onto a glass plate.
Prepared fiber mode-locker with graphene on a side-polished fiber. (left) Schematic explanation, and (right) top-view photo of the polished surface.
Fiber mode-locked laser setup. The schematics explain that the guided mode in the fiber core can be broadened by removing the clad so that the evanescent field of the mode can interact with graphene layer to form the pulses.
(a) Optical spectrum, and (b) pulse train of the pulse output formed by graphene mode-locker.
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