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The leakage current density of GdAlO devices with 0%, 18%, 35%, 49%, 71%, 82%, and 100% Gd. The leakage current was evaluated on (see inset figure). All samples were annealed at for 30 s as the simulating source/drain annealing step.
(a) Comparison of the leakage current at −20 V (filled symbols) and erase window (open symbols) and (b) dielectric constant of GdAlO film as a function of the Gd percentage.
(a) XRD data of GdAlO thin film with 35%, 49%, 71%, and 100% Gd. The crystallized GdAlO film shows many different phases depending on the Gd percentage. (b) The band gap (filled symbols) and the conduction band offset against silicon (open symbols) measured by XPS on GdAlO film directly deposited on silicon. Crystallization of GdAlO results in an increase in the band gap.
The charge retention property of fresh devices at room temperature (open circle) and (filled square) and that of a device cycled for 1000 program/erase at (open diamond). Due to the increase of the band gap of the crystallized GdAlO, the charge loss property is improved. However, the crystallized GdAlO is more vulnerable to trap generation during program/erase cycling.
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