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[(a) and (b)] The potential images obtained by using different tips on substrates. (a) CSG11 tip and (b) NSG11 tip. The corresponding loaded forces are shown under each charge pattern. (c) The loaded force dependence of surface potential when using NSG11 tips scanning over the surface. The squares, the triangles, and the dots show three groups of parallel experimental data. [(d) and (e)] The potential images of contact experiments obtained by applying different loaded forces on NSG11 tip. (d) 3450 nN, and (e) 115 nN. (f) The scheme of charge sign reversal model. The arrowhead shows the direction of the electron flow.
(a) and (b) are the topographic image and potential image of friction experiments on surface, respectively. (c) and (d) are the topographic image and potential image of friction experiments on surface, respectively, by using NSG11 AFM tips without layer.
The effect of friction speed [(a) and (b)] and friction times (c) on the electric quantity. (a) and (b) are the results at lower and higher friction speed, respectively. The squares, dots, and triangles in (c) represent data from three friction experiments using the same NSG11 tip at the loaded force of 115, 1150, and 3450 nN, respectively.
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