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The PL spectra of the Ge (100) diode at room temperature. The direct band transition in valley increases with increasing pumping power.
Temperature dependent PL at the temperature of . Direct band gap transition enhancement is due to carrier distribution toward the high energy part as well as the decrease in the band gap difference between direct and indirect band gaps at elevated temperature.
The EL spectra of the Ge (100) diode at current (a) lower than 400 mA, and (b) higher than 400 mA. The redshift is due to device heating. The direct band transition is enhanced with increasing drive current.
A luminescence spectrum fitted by the direct transition and indirect transition models.
(a) Carrier ratio in valley as a function of electron Fermi level and (b) the direct to indirect intensity ratio vs direct to indirect carrier density ratio. The slope of gives the relative direct transition rate with respect to the indirect transition rate.
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