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Transient electroluminescence dynamics in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes
1.J. Shinar and V. Savvate’ev, in Organic Light Emitting Devices: A Survey, edited by J. Shinar (Springer, Berlin, 2004), Chap. 1.
8.V. Savvate’ev, J. H. Friedl, L. Zou, J. Shinar, K. Christensen, W. Oldham, L. J. Rothberg, Z. Chen-Esterlit, and R. Kopelman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1501 (2000).
13.The spike’s peak location can be affected by the time constant or delay time of the electronics. In the low- and room-temperature measurements the coaxial cables connecting the OLED to the electronics are and long, so the spikes peak at 200–300 ns and 100–200 ns, respectively.
15.The field-dependent electron mobility in and hole mobility in are , so if the potential drop across each of these -thick layers is , the transit time through them is .
20. increases from 0.38 to 0.59 as the bias increases from 7 to 11 V. This is likely due to the change in the energy distribution of the trapped charges.
22.R. Kersting, U. Lemmer, M. Deussen, H. J. Bakker, R. F. Mahrt, H. Kurz, V. I. Arkhipov, H. Bässler, and E. O. Göbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1440 (1994).
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Intriguing electroluminescence(EL) spikes, following a voltage pulse applied to small molecular OLEDs, are discussed, elucidating carrier and exciton quenching dynamics and their relation to device structure. At low temperatures, all devices exhibit spikes at and μs-long tails. At 295 K only those with a hole injection barrier, carrier-trapping guest-host emitting layer, and no strong hole-blocking layer exhibit the spikes. They narrow and appear earlier under post-pulse reverse bias. The spikes and tails are in agreement with a revised model of recombination of correlated charge pairs (CCPs) and initially unpaired charges. Decreased post-pulse field-induced dissociative quenching of singlet excitons and CCPs, and possibly increased post-pulse current of holes that “turn back” toward the recombination zone after having drifted beyond it are suspected to cause the spikes’ amplitude, which exceeds the dc EL.
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