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Hardness vs the inverse square root of the grain size. The linear and parabolic fits are indicated with solid and dashed lines, respectively. Inset: Hardness vs the indentation depth to thickness ratio for 100 and 200 nm films. The zones, where the indentation size effect and the substrate effect occur, are indicated.
Young’s modulus vs the grain size [, see Ref. 34]. The inset indicates Young’s modulus behavior vs the inverse grain size for Pd and Cu [ and , see Ref. 34]. The experimental data for Pd and Cu are taken from Ref. 25.
(a) SEM image of a Ta film with a thickness equal to 400 nm. Inset: AFM image of the Ta film with a thickness equal to 400 nm. (b) SEM image of the Ta film with a thickness equal to 600 nm. Inset: AFM image of the Ta film with a thickness equal to 600 nm. These observations are made before indentation.
Properties of tantalum thin films measured by profilometry, microscopy, and nanoindentation.
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