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Base metal alloys with self-healing native conductive oxides for electrical contact materials
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10.1063/1.3499369
/content/aip/journal/apl/97/15/10.1063/1.3499369
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/97/15/10.1063/1.3499369
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Mechanisms for forming conducting oxide scales. (a) Doping with cations having a higher valence state than those of the base metal to provide -type donors. (b) Inducing a mixed valence state in the base metal cations by adding cations with a higher valence state, giving an additional path for charge conduction via electron/polaron hopping. (c) Alloying to promote the formation of a mixed oxide scale; oxide phase separation gives percolative conducting pathways through the insulating base metal oxide. (d) Alloying to give a two metallic phases where the second phase forms an inherently conductive native scale.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Cu–9 La: (a) Secondary electron SEM images of the deep-etched as-cast alloy and the surface scale after oxidation for 200 h (inset). (b) XRD pattern from a sample oxidized for 400 h showing as the only oxide phase. (c) Selected area ED pattern of the oxide on the thin foil after 10 h exposure; all rings correspond to . (d) Contact resistance values for the alloy and pure Cu as a function of oxidation time-error bars are ±0.5 .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Fe–8 V: (a) Secondary electron SEM image of the as-cast alloy. (b) XRD pattern from a sample oxidized for 400 h; no oxide peaks are present because the oxide is too thin. (c) Selected area ED pattern of the oxide on the thin foil after 60 h exposure; all rings correspond to . (d) Contact resistance values for the alloy, pure Fe and pure Cu as a function of oxidation time-error bars are ±0.5 .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Ni–28 Ru: (a) Optical image of the as-cast alloy. (b) XRD pattern from a sample oxidized for 400 h showing both and NiO phases. (c) Selected area ED pattern of the oxide on the thin foil after 3 h exposure: 1–101 ; 2–200 ; 3–200 NiO; 4–200 Ni; 5–222 NiO; and 6–222 . (d) Contact resistance values for the alloy, pure Ni, and pure Cu as a function of oxidation time-error bars are ±0.5 .

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/content/aip/journal/apl/97/15/10.1063/1.3499369
2010-10-12
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Base metal alloys with self-healing native conductive oxides for electrical contact materials
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/97/15/10.1063/1.3499369
10.1063/1.3499369
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