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Ambient molecular water accumulation on silica surfaces detected by a reflectance interference optical balance
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The principle of land-contrast interferometry on the BioCD. (a) Reflection coefficients are −0.383i on 77 nm (land) and 0.383i on 140 nm (mesa), and for both. A 1 nm water film changes the reflection coefficients by −0.0017 and on the land and the mesa, respectively. (b) Spot-shaped mesas were etched on silicon thermal-oxide silicon chips by photolithography. The contrast between the spot and the land is sensitive to water accumulation, because the local contrast is self-referenced with common-mode rejection of system fluctuations.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Water film accumulation on bare and chemically-treated silica surfaces under differing humidities. (a) The four surface preparations were dehydrated silica, hydrated silica, silanized silica (chlorodimethyl-octadecylsilane), and protein coated silica. The chips were baked after 1800 min and scanned again. (b) Water accumulation on protein-coated chips is 3× larger on a chip spinning at 5 m/s compared to a static chip. The chips were baked after 600 min and scanned again.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Eight protein spots (rabbit IgG) were printed on a 140 nm thick silica-on-silicon surface and dried by nitrogen. The sample was scanned by the SDI system exposed to air. Each image frame was acquired every 20 min. The thickness increased over 8 h by approximately 320 pm of water on the protein spots relative to the silanized (hydrophobic) land.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Ambient molecular water accumulation on silica surfaces detected by a reflectance interference optical balance