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(a) The XPS depth profile of the memory with plasma treatment and analyzed from the film surface. (b) The XPS analysis of the memories with and without plasma treatment. The HRTEM images of memories are shown in the inset.
Energy band diagrams of the memories (a) without and (b) with plasma treatment, which is speculated from the fluorine XPS analysis.
P/E speed of the memories with plasma treatment and postplasma annealing (PPA). The program and erase voltages are 12 V and −13 V, respectively. The C–V curves measured at 12 V/1 ms programming and −1 3 V/1 s erasing are shown in the inset. All the C–V curves of -axis are normalized by subtracting , the flat-band voltage of the fresh sample. The improved P/E characteristics by plasma treatment can be explained by built-in E1 and E2, respectively, as shown in the inset band diagrams.
Charge retention characteristics of memories with plasma treatment and PPA at room temperature. The charge loss rate was fitted by two straight lines and shown in the inset.
Endurance characteristics of memories with plasma treatment and PPA. The samples were programmed at 12 V for 1 ms and erased at −13 V for 1 s. Early cycling failure was observed for sample C due to the plasma damage. Sample D can sustain the memory window for over 3.4 V after cycling.
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