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(a) Illustration of the designed mask layers used to make our SPAD. (b) Illustration of the expected pn diode after fabrication. (c) Process simulation results showing the expected diode structure that was fabricated. The multiplication region is the top junction in the center of the device.
(a) Micrograph of fabricated SPAD structure. (b) A plot of the DCR as a function of . (c) The PDP for the SPAD over the range of visible wavelengths. The PDP measurements were made using a xenon arc lamp, CM110 monochromator, and a 2 in. integrating sphere. The events were recorded using the Agilent 53132A and the incident power was measured using a Thorlabs PM130D energy meter. (d) Plot of PDP as a function of .
FOM for our device as a function of using the fitted functions in Fig. 2 for different fluorescence intensities. As decreases, the optimal bias point shifts to favor a low dark count. The data points are our measured values and the X's indicate the optimum bias point for our device.
A comparison of the results of this work to other published results at both STI and LOCOS technology nodes based on our FOM. The appropriate reference is noted.
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