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Injection and detection of ballistic electrical currents in silicon
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Experimental apparatus for injecting and detecting ballistic electrical currents: Ti:S, OPO, BBO, and BD denote a mode-locked titanium sapphire laser, an optical parametric oscillator, a beta barium borate crystal, and a balanced detector, respectively. (b) The key features of the Si band structure, with the nonresonant quantum interference between the indirect two-photon absorption of the pulse and one-photon absorption of the pulse indicated by the longer arrows and with the probe shown as the shorter arrow. Phonon-assisted scattering is indicated by a wavy arrow. (c) Schematic showing the injection of charge current by co-linearly polarized (along ) and pulses. The electrons and holes are initially injected with identical Gaussian spatial density profiles (dashed curve of height and width ). For , the electrons (holes) move to the right (left) with average velocity (). As a result, the electrons (holes) travel a distance in time . The left (right) cross hatched area indicates the differential change in the electron density (hole density ) caused by the carrier motion.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The Gaussian spatial profile of the phase-independent differential transmission, (open circles), and the derivativelike spatial profile of the phase-dependent differential transmission, (solid squares), are shown as a function of position along the -axis for a fixed time delay of 5 ps and for fixed phases of and , respectively. The measured height and width of the profile are extracted by fitting the data to a Gaussian (dashed line), and [the maximum ] by fitting the data to the derivative of that Gaussian (solid line). The inset shows the phase-dependent differential transmission as a function of phase for the same fixed time delay and for fixed positions of (up-triangles) and (down-triangles). The solid lines in the inset are cosinusoidal fits to the data.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The peak phase-independent (open circles) and phase-dependent (solid squares) differential transmissions, and , respectively, measured by repeating the procedure summarized in Fig. 2 as a function of time delay. The inset shows the net carrier transport length, , extracted from these quantities.


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Scitation: Injection and detection of ballistic electrical currents in silicon