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Schematic of 4D electron shadowgraph. (a) Configuration of the experimental setup. Shadowgraphs taken with ultrashort electron pulses before (b) and at 72 ps after the pump laser pulses (c). The modification of electron beam intensity profile is produced by the transient electric field.
Shadowgraphs of the fast evolving plasmas. The edges of target shadow are shown by the three yellow lines.
(a) The diameter of the electron-depleted region as a function of delay time. The slope of the fitting line is 0.08 mm/ps. (b) The percentage of the focused electrons as a function of delay time. The slope of the fitting line is .
Comparison of the electron shadowgraph from the experiment (top) and the simulation (bottom). In the simulation plots, a blue spot represents a probe electron and the red line following represents its trace. The hemicircle ring expanding with time indicates the density profile of the suprathermal electrons ejected from the interaction spot with color scale.
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