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Structure and principle of operation. (a) Heterostructure schematic of the QDAP showing the separate absorption and multiplication regions. (b) Calculated band diagram of the QDAP using SENTAURUS simulation tool with the absorption and multiplication sections reverse biased at voltages of 0.5 and 2.0 V, respectively. (c) Theoretical simulation of the electric field profile in the device, confirming that the maximum electric field is dropped across the multiplication region.
Conversion efficiency. (a) Conversion efficiency of the DWELL absorber as a function of wavelength for an applied bias of 2 V. (b) Photocurrent and conversion efficiency of the DWELL section at as a function of the reverse bias. The inset illustrates the structure of the device under text.
Photocurrent, conversion efficiency, and noise of the QDAP as functions of the reverse bias voltage across the APD section for a fixed applied bias of 0.5 V across the DWELL section. The inset shows the calculated excess noise factor of the device (dots) and the excess noise factor predicted by the dead-space multiplication theory (DSMT) (solid curve). Note that if the DWELL absorber was operated at 2 V [as in Fig. 2(a)], the peak CE at would be about 12%, which is one of the highest reported CE for any QD based midinfrared detector.
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