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(a) SEM images of deposited top Pt electrode on a layer and tungsten probe tip for in situ switching measurement. (b) Cross-sectional SEM images of the structure after electroforming. The inset shows the characteristics for the forming process in the IS and LRS.
(a) Resistance switching characteristics of another structure in a probe station. (b) Cross-sectional FIB-SEM image of a device in the LRS. The inset shows a cross-sectional FIB-SEM image of the as-grown device before the forming process. (c) Measured XPS data before and after the forming process. (d) Reported values of chemical binding states for Nb (Refs. 10 and 11).
curves of another device with increasing current compliance limit in the IS. Repeated application of an electric field caused the insulating to become transparent and electroforming eventually occurred. The inset shows resistance taken at 0.3 V as a function of the current compliance.
Schematic diagrams of proposed resistance switching model. (a) As-prepared structure in the IS. (b) Metallic nanostructures (bright spots) created in the layer by repeated application of an electric field. (c) The electroforming process creates a main metallic conduction path that bridges the electrodes, causing a sudden resistance change from the insulating state to the metallic LRS. (d) The transition occurs due to a local redox process at a weak point (dark spot).
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