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(a) Resistance in Nb-g during warmup of the cryostat. The baseplate temperature is lower than the trap temperature. (b) Fraction of reflected rf power vs frequency in the NbN trap during warmup of the cryostat; top curve: below , bottom curve: above . The observed value switches multiple times between the two curves due to warmup and cooldown of the trap as the rf is moved on and off the resonant frequency.
(a) Heating rate in Nb-g in the normal and superconducting states, with mean and errorbars at 1 standard deviation. Individual data points are shown. The difference between normal and superconducting data is not significant. (b) Photo of Nb-g. Top right corner: resistor for heating the trap; top left corner: copper braid to thermally connect the trap to the helium baseplate.
Heating rate in quanta/s of traps made of superconducting and normal metals measured at cryogenic temperatures. Conversion to electric field noise is scaled to 1 MHz assuming scaling (Ref. 13).
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