Longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in sintered polycrystalline
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(a) A photograph of the sample. (b) A schematic illustration of the longitudinal SSE and the ISHE in the sample. , , , , and denote a temperature gradient, the magnetization vector of the slab, the spin-polarization vector in the PT layer, the spatial direction of the thermally generated spin current, and the electric field induced by the ISHE in the Pt layer, respectively. [(c) and (d)] Perspective and side views of the experimental setup for measuring the ISHE induced by the longitudinal SSE. denotes the angle between the external magnetic field (with magnitude ) in the plane and the axis. The temperature difference was measured with two T-type thermocouples attached to the Cu and brass blocks.
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[(a) and (b)] dependence of between the ends of the Pt wire in the sample at , measured when a temperature gradient is applied along the [downward, (a)] and [upward, (b)] directions. The magnetic field was applied along the direction or the direction . (c) dependence of between the ends of the Pt wire in the sample for various values of at , measured when is along the direction. (d) dependence of at and , measured when is along the direction. (e) Bulk magnetization curve of the slab. Inset to (e) shows the curve in which the magnetic-field sweep range (horizontal axis) is extended. was measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).
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