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Biomarker detection based on XRF of composition-encoded nanoparticles, where three-strand detection of oligonucleotides and sandwich detection of protein are carried out in reflection mode and transmission mode, respectively.
(a) XRF spectrum of lead-tin alloy nanoparticles after detecting 100 nM ssDNA, where the bottom and top lines are background and signal, respectively; (b) the peak areas of lead (top) and (bottom) as a function of ssDNA concentration; (c) the intensity of bismuth peak as a function of ssDNA concentrations, where four aluminum plates are stacked together to enhance signal intensity in transmission mode (inset); (d) XRF spectrum of lead (10.55, 12.61 keV), bismuth (10.84, 13.02 keV), indium (24.21, 27.27 keV), and tin (25.27, 28.48 keV) nanoparticles after detecting four types of ssDNAs at concentrations of 100 nM, where (d) inset shows lead and bismuth peaks at higher magnification, where bottom and top lines are background and signal, respectively.
(a) XRF spectrum of bismuth nanoparticles after detecting 100 ng/ml of protein biomarker, where the bottom and top lines are background and signal, respectively; (b) the peak areas of bismuth (top) and (bottom) as a function of protein concentration; (c) XRF spectrum of bismuth nanoparticles immobilized on an aluminum plate with 100 ng/ml of protein biomarker and then covered with 10 mm PMMA; (d) spatially distributed intensities of two discrete areas on a plastic substrate covered with bismuth and lead-tin nanoparticles.
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