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Cross-sectional TEM images of the LSMO/SRO SL. Left: Overview TEM image of the entire thickness; right: (001) lattice plane image of part of the thickness. Inset: Diffraction pattern including SL reflections (tiny spots above and below weak main spots). Beam direction .
Magnetic moment per Mn ion measured in magnetic fields of 0.1, 1, 3, and 7 T applied parallel (solid symbols) and perpendicular (open symbols) to the SL. REM denotes the remanent magnetization measured after cooling the sample in 0.1 T to 5 K and removing the field.
Full (solid symbols) and minor hysteresis loops at (a) 10 K and (b) 100 K. At 10 K one reversible minor loop is cycled between and −1.25 T, at 100 K two minor loops were measured, one (triangles) between and −0.9 T and a second star between and . The arrows indicate the sweep direction. The relative layer magnetization orientation is illustrated in the diagrams showing schematically a SL unit cell with a LSMO (L) and a SRO (S) layer. The insets show zooms of the central sections of the loops.
(a) Calculated magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from micromagnetic simulations for three values of the AF interlayer exchange stiffness. The arrows indicate the sweep direction. (b) Experimental exchange bias field and coercive fields of the SL and a 5 nm thick single LSMO layer as a function of temperature.
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