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The wavy vortex from laser-induced particle breakdown. The evolving time (the laser pulse is introduced at time zero) is displayed in each image. g is indicated for gravity. CCD observation is along direction. [(a)–(c)] The sequential evolution of the wavy vortex with mode. The corresponding perturbations are held with relative positions to each other while growing. (d) Wavy vortex is generated from horizontal incident laser pulse. The ripple-type perturbations appear on the top of the vortex ring.
Measurements of the characteristics of the ripple-type perturbation. (a) The ratio of perturbation amplitude to wavelength is about 0.16, for different mode of wavy vortex. [(b) and (d)] They show the consistent scaling relations with , where is the radius of the vortex ring and is the number of the perturbation.
Evolution of the perturbation amplitude and radius of wavy vortex. It shows and . The exponents are found close to 0.5, which suggests the wavy vortex expands in normal diffusion.
Schlieren visualization of the wavy vortex. The delay time is indicated in each frame. (a) Comatic aberration induces the asymmetric shock shell expansion. The asymmetric rarefaction wave induces the asymmetric indentation flow into the spherical hot gas. Inset: the incident laser direction. CCD observation is along direction. (b) The ripple-type perturbations first appear on one side of the vortex ring due to the asymmetric indentation flow. (c) Smooth vortex ring at . It shows without comatic aberration, the vortex is with smooth boundary at late stage.
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