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Cut off frequencies for ZnO channel waveguides of several sizes. The area to the left of each is the single-mode propagation regime, and the area to the right is the multimode propagation regime. The structure used for the simulations is shown.
Experimental setup for the measurements. (a) For the cutback measurements, lensed fiber is used at the input and at the output. (b) For the nonlinear effects measurements, the input fiber is substituted for free-space optics. The points for power measurements are also shown.
Propagation loss measurement results. The black line represents the loss estimated from the measurements, and the color lines represent losses calculated using a model based on the standard deviation of the sidewall roughness. On the inset, a SEM image of the ZnO waveguide can be appreciated.
Output spectra for various pulse powers. The calculated peak power in the waveguide is shown.
Comparison of nonlinear waveguide materials (Refs. 4–7).
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