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Self-phase modulation at visible wavelengths in nonlinear ZnO channel waveguides
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Cut off frequencies for ZnO channel waveguides of several sizes. The area to the left of each is the single-mode propagation regime, and the area to the right is the multimode propagation regime. The structure used for the simulations is shown.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Experimental setup for the measurements. (a) For the cutback measurements, lensed fiber is used at the input and at the output. (b) For the nonlinear effects measurements, the input fiber is substituted for free-space optics. The points for power measurements are also shown.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Propagation loss measurement results. The black line represents the loss estimated from the measurements, and the color lines represent losses calculated using a model based on the standard deviation of the sidewall roughness. On the inset, a SEM image of the ZnO waveguide can be appreciated.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Output spectra for various pulse powers. The calculated peak power in the waveguide is shown.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Comparison of nonlinear waveguide materials (Refs. 4–7).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Self-phase modulation at visible wavelengths in nonlinear ZnO channel waveguides