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XPS spectra for deposition on HOPG substrates at 30 and . (a) , (b) , and (c) regions are shown as raw spectral data, with (d) the region also shown as a difference spectrum referenced to the corresponding substrate peak prior to deposition.
Normalized spectra [(a) and (d)], difference spectra [(b) and (e)], and and spectra [(c) and (f)] after 18 cycles ALD at [(a)–(c)] and [(d)–(f)] on annealed HOPG, exfoliated HOPG, and exfoliated . In [(a) and (d)], normalized spectra are vertically truncated to show detail.
Postdeposition AFM images for [(a)–(c)] and [(b)–(f)] ALD temperature on exfoliated [(a) and (d)], [(b) and (e)], and [(c) and (f)] HOPG surfaces.
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