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Three-dimensional visualization from non-contact AFM images of typical SHI induced nanohillocks on . The -scale is enhanced with respect to and to show ion-induced surface modifications. (a) The irradiation took place under an angle of as indicated by the arrow. Each hillock is produced by an individual ion. (b) Here, the irradiation took place under a glancing angle of and each of the chains is produced by a single ion.
AFM images of SHI irradiated graphene on , -scale in nm. [(a)–(c)] In (a) the sample was irradiated with ions at 103 MeV under an angle of with respect to the surface: hillocks are created but the graphene exhibits no folding damage. In [(b) and (c)] the sample was irradiated with ions at 91 MeV under a glancing angle of ; ions were coming from the left. The graphene shows extended damage in the form of folded parts. On SLG each ion track leads to folding. On multilayer graphene (here a trilayer marked with TLG) the efficiency is reduced.
(a) Possible extended defects in graphene which can be created by SHI irradiation under glancing angles. With a SHI up to several 100 eV can be transferred from the projectile to each unit cell. The effective radius of the electronic excitations is on the order of some nm. (b) The hillock chain is created at much later times but overlaps spatially with the line-defect; the graphene can thus be zipped open along the ion track.
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